弗雷德里克•斯宾塞•查普曼

 

弗雷德里克•斯宾塞•查普曼(1907-1971)。弗雷德里克•斯宾塞•查普曼于1907年5月10日出生于伦敦。他的母亲,威尼弗雷德·奥蒙德在他出生后不久就去世了,他的父亲,弗兰克·斯宾塞·查普曼,在索姆河战役中牺牲了。弗雷迪(这是他出名前的名字)和他的哥哥罗伯特都由一个年老的牧师和他的太太抚养。查普曼从小就对自然和户外的东西有着浓烈的兴趣,据他自己说,他小的时候就是一个疯狂的蝴蝶收藏家,之后又热衷于收集野花,再后来又去观察鸟类。从他的学生时代一直到成年,这些兴趣一直伴随着他。

 

查普曼就读于约克郡的赛德伯中学,后来获得了基奇纳奖学金在剑桥大学的圣约翰学院学习历史和英语,在那里他点燃了对冒险的激情,在他大学毕业前的时间里,他就已经完成了多次海外游览,其中包括在阿尔卑斯山的登山探险和去冰岛研究植物和鸟类的行程。

 

离开大学后,查普曼2次调查和研究美洲和欧洲之间可能的空中路线,在这期间他花了几年待在格陵兰岛(1930-1931年和1932-33年)进行了一些测量工作,还被聘用为滑雪专家兼鸟类学家。在这个时候他已经表现出了对摄影的天赋,并在离开前被告诉说:“如果你有一个相机,一定要尝试在高山上摄影,并且把它做好”。他还正式地在他的著作《北极光》(1932年)和《沃特金斯的最后一次探险》(1934年)中记述了这2段考察之旅,还制作了一部名为《北极光》的电影。由于他是一个出色的演讲者,他不久就开始做关于他在北极的探险经历的演讲,而且在他剩余的职业生涯中,他也常常这么做,他的探险经历为他关于探险、摄影、电影和危险的演讲提供了十分丰富的素材。

 

查普曼后来又开始着手于教学,他在约克郡的艾斯加斯准备学校担任了一个职务,在这里,他也得到了满足,因为他可以把自己对自然和户外的热爱都传递给他的学生。然而,他对于冒险的热情并没有就此满足,早在1936年,他加入了一个喜马拉雅登山探险队,也是在这一次旅程中他第一次见到了贝希尔·格德,他是锡金、不丹和西藏的政治专员,在他1936年至1937年去拉萨的政治使团中,他也给查普曼提供了一个工作,就是做他的秘书。

 

这个到西藏的使团于1936年7月下旬从甘托克(锡金)出发,在西藏待了6个多月后于1937年2月离藏。这个使团的目的就是要建议西藏的噶厦政府说服班禅喇嘛从中国内地回来,而且如果可能的话,在拉萨建立一个永久性的英国代表处。在格德的领导下,这个使团的人事组成有休·理查森,在江孜的英国贸易代理,中尉埃文·尼皮恩,他是皇家通信兵派来的2个电报操作员之一。

 

查普曼在西藏之行中的主要任务就是译解电报,然实际上他所做的比这要多的多。“我需要拍摄一些影片和静止的照片,研究鸟类、植物和一些小虫子,还要为格德做一些私人的工作”。他也要负责保管使团日志,这些日志都要附上图片每周发回印度政府。查普曼用他的业余时间来观察鸟类(理查森也有这个爱好)、爬山、拍摄和冲洗照片。他还是英国使团中娱乐活动的主要倡导者,他花了很多时间编辑和整理电影胶片(这其中有很多都是他自己在西藏制作的)给西藏的观众展示英国使团的房子:德吉林卡。他还是“土拨鼠使团”足球队中身手最为敏捷的一员。使团中如此丰富的娱乐活动也给拉萨的居民留下了很好的印象,尤其是查普曼外向友好的性格使他和西藏人相处地十分愉快。1937年从拉萨回来之后查普曼获得了许可带领一支小的登山探险队,去往西藏的圣山绰莫拉日。查普曼和一个夏尔巴人帕桑达瓦也成为了第一批登上24000英尺顶峰的登山者。西藏也为查普曼提供了2本新书的素材:《拉萨:圣城》(1938年)和《从Helvellyn到喜马拉雅》(1940年)。

 

1938年查普曼又回到了教学中,就职于苏格兰北部的高登斯顿学校。然而不幸的是,战争爆发了,查普曼被征去服役了。在1941年他被派遣到一个新加坡的游击战学校之前,他还持有一些短期的职务,也是从那里,查普曼被派往日本战线后方指挥侦查和破坏活动。他做的非常出色,在马来亚丛林待了三年半(1942-1945年)。战争结束后,他被标榜为英雄,晋升为中校,还在1944年和1946年分别被奖赏了一个D.S.O.和一个酒吧。他这些年的故事都被记录在1948年他获得巨大成功的那本书中:《丛林是公正的》。二战结束后,查普曼娶了费思·玛丽·唐森,成为了信托基金会的负责人。然后他又回到了教育事业,在德国西部的艾尔弗雷德国王学校(1948-1952年)和非洲北部的圣安得烈学院(1956-1961年)担任校长,之后又成为了苏塞克斯郡专门收养孤儿的的裴斯泰洛齐儿童村(1962-1966年)的管理人。在这期间,他和他的妻子以及3个小男孩在1953年进行了从开普敦到乌干达的开车之旅。描述这趟旅行的书《最轻的非洲》也在1955年出版。

 

查普曼在雷丁大学(学生宿舍)作为管理者度过了他最后的时光。然而随着退休临近,他也感到了健康和经济上越来越大的压力,尽管他曾经有如此辉煌的生活,查普曼还是觉得不满足。他总是追寻着“体验生活的充实,从行动和克服危险中寻找内心的满足”,因而对他来说,晚年的生活几乎没有什么乐趣,在1971年8月8日,弗雷德里克•斯宾塞•查普曼开枪自杀了。

 

查普曼所获得奖项包括:北极勋章(1931年),吉尔纪念勋章(皇家地理学会,1941年),蒙哥公园勋章(皇家苏格兰地理学会,1948年),星期日时报特别奖和金奖章(1949年),以及阿拉伯的劳伦斯纪念奖章(皇家中亚学会,1950年)。他也是英国电视节目“这是你的生活”在1963年12月23日的采访对象。




黄建鹏画廊收藏了自1860年代到2010年代多位西藏摄影史中重要摄影家的原作,是中国收藏和研究西藏影像最为专业的机构之一。

 

 

Frederick Spencer Chapman

 

Frederick Spencer Chapman (1907-1971).Frederick Spencer Chapman was born in London on 10 May 1907. His mother, Winifred Ormond, died shortly after his birth and his father, Frank Spencer Chapman, was killed at the battle of the Somme. Freddy (as he was to become known) and his older brother, Robert, were cared for by an elderly clergyman and his wife. Chapman developed an early interest in nature and the outdoors. As a boy he was, by his own account, 'first a mad-keen butterfly collector, then a wild-flower enthusiast, and at last a bird-watcher'. These were continuing interests throughout his school years and into his adult life.

 

Chapman was educated at Sedbergh School in Yorkshire and then won a Kitchener scholarship to St. John's College, Cambridge, to study history and English. It was there that he developed his passion for adventure and, by the end of his university years, had already completed several overseas excursions including a climbing expedition in the Alps and a journey to Iceland to study plant and bird life.

 

On leaving university Chapman spent several years in Greenland (1930-31 and 1932-33) as part of two expedition parties investigating possible air routes between Europe and America. Chapman undertook surveying work and was also hired as a ski expert and ornithologist. He had already shown a flair for photography and was told before departure to ''try and get really good at mountain photography if you have got a camera''. He also wrote the official accounts of the expeditions which were published as Northern Lights (1932) and Watkins' Last Expedition (1934) and produced a film called 'Northern Lights'. As he was a talented speaker, Chapman was soon giving lectures about his adventures in the Arctic and throughout the rest of his career he was often in demand in this capacity. His life and adventures provided him with ample material for lectures on exploration, photography, filmmaking and danger.

 

Chapman next turned his hand to teaching, accepting a post at Aysgarth Preparatory School in Yorkshire, where he found satisfaction in being able to pass his own love of nature and the outdoor life on to many of his pupils. However,his passion for adventure was far from sated and, early in 1936, he joined a Himalayan climbing expedition. It was during this trip that he first met Basil Gould, the Political Officer for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet who offered him a job as his private secretary for the 1936-37 Political Mission to Lhasa.

 

The Mission to the Tibetan capital departed from Gangtok (Sikkim) in late July 1936 and left Tibet just over six months later in February 1937. The aim of the Mission was to advise the Regent of Tibet and his Cabinet, to persuade the Panchen Lama to return from China where he had fled, and, if possible, to establish permanent British representation in Lhasa. The mission personnel, under the leadership of Gould, included Hugh Richardson, the British Trade Agent at Gyantse, and Lieutenant Evan Nepean, one of two telegraph operators sent from the Royal Signal Corps.

 

Chapman's main role in the Mission was to decipher telegraphs, but in reality he did much more than this. 'I have to take film and still photos, do bird, plant and bug work, some survey, and personal work for Gould''. He was also responsible for keeping the Mission Diary, which was accompanied by photographs and sent off to the Government of India each week. Chapman spent his spare time bird-watching (an interest shared with Richardson), hill-climbing, and taking and developing photographs. He was also a major exponent of the British Mission's entertainment programme. He spent many hours editing and sorting cine film (much of which he had made himself in Tibet) to show to Tibetan audiences at the British Mission house, the Dekyi Lingka. He was also one of the keenest players in the 'Mission Marmots' football team. It was due (in part) to these activities that the Mission made a favourable impression on the residents of Lhasa and in particular Chapman's 'open, cheerful friendliness went down well with the Tibetans'. After his return from Lhasa in 1937 Chapman secured permission to lead a small climbing expedition to the Tibetan holy mountain, Chomolhari. Chapman and a Sherpa named Passang Dawa succeeded in becoming the first mountaineers to reach the 24,000ft. summit. Tibet also provided Chapman with material for two new books ' Lhasa: The Holy City (1938) and Helvellyn to Himalaya (1940).

 

In 1938 Chapman returned to teaching, taking an appointment at Gordonstoun School in the north of Scotland. Unfortunately however, war was on the horizon and Chapman was soon called up for active service. He held a number of short-term posts before he was dispatched, in September 1941, to command a guerrilla warfare school in Singapore. From there Chapman was sent behind Japanese lines to organise reconnaissance and sabotage operations. He excelled in this role, spending three and a half years (1942-45) in the Malayan jungle. By the end of the war he was labelled a hero, promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, and awarded a D.S.O. in 1944 and bar in 1946. His story of these years was published in his enormously successful 1948 book, The Jungle is Neutral . After World War II, Chapman married Faith Mary Townson and became the Director of the Outward Bound Trust. He then returned once again to teaching acting as headmaster of the British Forces' King Alfred School in Plön, West Germany (1948-52) and then at St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown, South Africa (1956-61), and later as warden for the Pestalozzi Children's Village for displaced children in Sedlescombe, Sussex (1962-66). In between he made time for another adventure caravanning from Cape Town to Uganda with his wife and three small boys in 1953. Lightest Africa , an account of this trip was published in 1955.

 

Chapman spent his last years working as the warden of Wantage Hall (a student hall of residence) at Reading University. However, as retirement approached, he felt under increasing pressure from health and financial worries. Also, despite leading such an extraordinary life, Chapman still felt unfulfilled. For someone who had always sought 'to experience the fullness of life, and the inner satisfaction that comes from facing and overcoming danger', old age offered few pleasures. Frederick Spencer Chapman shot himself on 8 August 1971.

 

Chapman's medals and awards include: Arctic Medal (1931), Gill Memorial Medal (Royal Geographical Society, 1941), Mungo Park Medal (Royal Scottish Geographical Society, 1948), Sunday Times Special Award and Gold Medal (1949), and the Lawrence of Arabia Memorial Medal (Royal Central Asian Society, 1950). He was also the subject of the British televion programme 'This is your Life' on 23 December 1963.




Huang Jianpeng Gallery collected lots of original works of the important photographers in Tibet photography history. It is one of the most professional institutions that collect and study Tibet images. 

 


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