青木文教

 

青木文教,日本著名的藏学专家,1886年9月28日生于日本滋贺县高岛郡安云川町,早年入京都府立中学学习,后进入佛教大学(龙谷大学的前身)学习。1909年9月,青木文教被大谷光瑞选定为派往西藏的留学生,他立即前往印度调查佛教遗迹。1910年2月,十三世达赖喇嘛逃往印度大吉岭,在英国访问的大谷光瑞认为正是与西藏发展“友谊”的良机,立即派在加尔各答的青木文教赴大吉岭与达赖见面。青木文教随即赶往大吉岭与十三世达赖见面,并献上礼物。见完达赖后,将与达赖见面的情况向大谷光瑞进行了汇报,大谷光瑞让他到伦敦来学习。

    1911年,在伦敦留学近一年的青木文教接到了十三世达赖喇嘛的亲笔信,大致的内容是:西藏已准备好向日本派遣留学生,希望青木文教在归国途中绕道来大吉岭。随即青木文教从伦敦出发前往大吉岭。1912年3月,青木文教与西藏派往日本的留学生擦珠·阿旺罗桑一行来到印度的噶伦堡,并谒见了在此滞留的十三世达赖喇嘛,达赖让青木文教一起待在噶伦堡。青木文教一直想随十三世达赖喇嘛一同进藏,但由于英印政府未予许可,他与达赖一同进藏的想法落空。1912年6月23日,达赖在进藏前一天召见了青木文教和另一位日本人多田等观。

1912年9月9日,青木文教化妆成西藏巡礼者踏上了进藏的行程,10月2日抵达日喀则,10月9日离开日喀则,于10月15日抵达与拉萨只有80公里的塞曲科羊子寺。达赖喇嘛也刚从桑顶寺移居到这里。由于驻藏川军与藏军之间的战事尚未结束,达赖一行在塞曲科羊子寺一直滞留至1913年初。虽然,青木文教多次提出想尽快进入拉萨,均被西藏官员否定。在此期间,青木文教向达赖喇嘛提出了西藏的改革方案和设想,并向达赖具体提出了四点建议:一、勘察煤矿资源;二、翻译日军军事操典;三、制作“西藏军旗”;四、帮助联系西藏学生赴日留学。1913年1月22日,青木文教与达赖一行一同进入拉萨,被安排在大贵族彭康家中,他在拉萨整整居住了三年。

    1916年1月23日,达赖喇嘛在罗布林卡召见了青木文教,授予他“班智达”称号,颁发了盖有达赖喇嘛印章的证书。1916年1月26日,青木从拉萨出发离开西藏,经江孜到达日喀则。2月10日,谒见了九世班禅。2月底,抵达了锡金甘托克,在这里会见了英国驻锡金行政长官查尔斯·贝尔。3月底抵达阔别四年之久的噶伦堡。青木在印度滞留了一年于1917年4月返回日本。

   青木文教于1912年至1916年,在西藏拍摄的珍贵影像,全景式的记录了西藏这一时期的宗教、军事、文化、市井生活。这些影像通过《亚东印画集》贴相簿的形式发表,并将早期原作保留了下来。这些影像用光考究,构图优美,拍摄的人物和景物不仅具有重要的历史价值,同时具有很高的审美价值。他拍摄的这些影像为研究这一时期的西藏留下了宝贵的实物影像依据。

    1920年,京都内外出版社出版了他的《西藏游记:秘密之国》,此后该书以其它书名多次再版。1940年,青木文教出版了《西藏文化的新研究》,1942年出版了《西藏民族与文化》,1945年内部刊印了《西藏全记》,1947年刊印了《西藏语学》。1951年3月,任东京大学文学部藏学研究负责人。1956年11月17日,逝世,享年70岁。




黄建鹏画廊收藏了自1860年代到2010年代多位西藏摄影史中重要摄影家的原作,是中国收藏和研究西藏影像最为专业的机构之一。

 

Bunkyō Aoki

 

The famous Tibetan expert was born on September 28, 1886 in an Yunchuan cho, Takashima County, Shiga, He is into the Kyoto Prefectural School study in early years of Japan. He entered the Buddhist University (the predecessor of the Ryukoku University). In September 1909, Aoki was selected as students sent to Tibet by Otani Guangrui .He immediately went to India to investigate the Buddhist relics. In February 1910, the Thirteenth Dalai Lama fled to India in Darjeeling, access in the UK. Otani Guangrui thought it was a good opportunity to develop the "friendship" with the Tibetan so he immediately sent Aoki in Calcutta to go to Darjeeling to meet with the Dalai Lama. He rushed to Darjeeling and the 13th Dalai Lama met him and he offered gifts to the Dalai Lama. After that Otani Guangrui reported him to go back to London for study.

 

In 1911 Aoki spent nearly a year studying in London and received a personal letter of the 13th Dalai Lama: Tibet is ready to be sent students to Japan. I hope Aoki returned on the way to Darjeeling. Then Aoki returned from London to the Darjeeling. In March 1912, Aoki sent to Tibetan students in Japan. Ngawang Lobsang and his party arrived at Kalimpong, India, and the audience with a stay in this 13th Dalai Lama, Dalai Aoki together to be in Kalimpong. Aoki has been together with the 13th Dalai Lama in Tibet, but the British-Indian government does not license him into Tibet with the Dalai Lama. His idea comes to nothing. June 23, 1912, the Dalai Lama in Tibet before the day was summoned to Aoki and another Japanese Tada concept.

September 9, 1912, Aoki embarked on a journey into Tibet, arrived in Shigatse on October 2, On October 9 he left Shigatse. He arrived in temple which is 80km away from Lhasa on October 15.The Dalai Lama just moved to Samding Temple. Before the end of war between Tibet Sichuan army and the Tibetan army, the Dalai Lama and his entourage have been stranded in the plug Qu Yang Zi Temple to early 1913. Aoki hoped to enter Lhasa as soon as possible, but denied by Tibet officials. In the meantime, Aoki helped the Dalai Lama to make Tibet's reform plans and ideas, and the Dalai specific four-point proposal: First, a survey and coal resources; Second, the translation of the Japanese military drill book; Third, making "Tibet flag ; Fourth, help Contact Tibetan students studying in Japan. January 22, 1913, Aoki, the Dalai Lama and his party together to enter Lhasa.They are arranged in the house of Peng Kang, the great nobles. He lived in Lhasa full three years.

January 23, 1916 at Norbulingka, the Dalai Lama summoned Aoki to grant him a "Pandita" title, awarded a certificate stamped with the seal of the Dalai Lama.On January 26, 1916, Aoki started his trip from Lhasa and left Shigatse Gyantse reach of Tibet. On February 10th, he met the Ninth Panchen Lama. By the end of February, he arrived in Sikkim Gangtok and met the British Executive Charles Bell. By the end of March arrived in Kalimpong after an absence of four years Aoki stranded in India for the year to return to Japan in April 1917.

Aoki shot in Tibet, precious images, panoramic view of the record of this period in Tibet's religious, military, culture, marketplace of life in 1912-1916. These images by " Photography of East Asia and India ”in the form of paste album released, and early the original encumbered stayed. These images are elegant with beautiful composition. The figures and scenes are shot not only as important historical value, but also as high aesthetic value. He shot these images for the study of this period; Tibet left a valuable physical image basis.

In 1920, Kyoto, inside and outside the Press published his "Tibet travel: secrets of the country", reprinted many times since the book to the other title. In 1940, Aoki published a new study of Tibetan culture, Tibetan culture "was published in 1942, has published within the" Tibet in mind, "in 1945, and in 1947 he published the" Tibetan language” In March 1951 he was the person in charge of Tibetology in the Department of Literature, University of Tokyo. On November 17, 1956, he died at the age of 70.



Huang Jianpeng Gallery collected lots of original works of the important photographers in Tibet photography history. It is one of the most professional institutions that collect and study Tibet images. 

 

 


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