查尔斯·贝尔 爵士

 

查尔斯·阿弗雷德·贝尔于1870年在印度加尔各答出生。他是印度行政部门公务员亨利·贝尔的儿子。他毕业于牛津温彻斯特学院及新学院。查尔斯同样于1891年也加入了印度行政部门,并且在孟加拉,比哈尔邦及奥里萨邦待了九年。在1900年,他被调去大吉岭。在那,他第一次与藏族人相遇并且被他们的文化所吸引。之后他开始学习藏语。1905年,他出版了第一本书籍:《藏语口语手册》,这是一本关于语法短语的两册小字典。之后的几年,贝尔参与了关于西藏的行政事宜。在1904-05年,他负责管理的Chumbi谷,管理西藏在扬哈斯本条约的条款下已暂时割让给英国的区域。在1908年之后,贝尔同样也是在约翰C怀特不在任的时候担任锡金,不丹及西藏的署理行政长官。对于贝尔政治生涯最重要的事情就是在1910年会见十三世达赖喇嘛。当时达赖喇嘛迫于川军的压力,逃往锡金。贝尔作为当时的行政长官,他对达赖的流放负责。他们两之间产生了友谊,并且这种关系亲密并且持久。这对以后对英国与西藏关系产生了关键的作用,特别是在达赖喇嘛于1912年六月回到西藏的时候。就像贝尔所说,在达赖流放时,贝尔给予的帮助导致了“为什么英国大名在西藏高高在上的原因。”

贝尔的外交触觉是在1913-14年与西藏人商议谈判期间表现出来。他担当了作为英国全权代表亨利 麦克马洪爵士的西藏事务的顾问。新的盎格鲁-西藏贸易法则的签署反应了十三世达拉喇嘛及他的代表总理(洛丹)Shatra对贝尔的信心。在此过程中,英国政府授予贝尔1 CMG(骑士)。

贝尔直到1918年继续担任锡金,不丹,西藏的行政长官。在此期间,他继续和达赖喇嘛交流,给他现代化政策的咨询。贝尔在英国各界普遍认作在当时参与西藏事务的主要权利的执行者。

1918年后,贝尔离开了公务员的职位,投身于西藏的研究。用未来的两年待在大吉岭。尽管他收到了十三世达赖喇嘛邀请他来拉萨的邀请函。尽管如此,英国政府并没有让他这样做。然而,1919年,形势发生了变化,W.L.坎贝尔船长意外辞职.贝尔再次任职,并且他被安排前往拉萨就职。

在1920年,贝尔终于被英印政府派往拉萨,作为外交任务的一部分。他于11月17日到达拉萨。贝尔的任务是向西藏提供外交政策咨询。“达赖喇嘛非常热情地欢迎了贝尔,并且在第一次会面时,和他在一间私密的房间里的小桌子上见面。没有其他侍从人员。这是噶厦政府对贝尔的一种特殊礼待。让贝尔坐在他们的讲台上是喇嘛授予最高藏族官员的一种习惯。

贝尔代表英国发展与西藏的关系,自然损害了汉藏关系。著名学者牙含章所著的《达赖喇嘛传》,用一个章节记述了贝尔在拉萨的活动,他认为贝尔在拉萨的主要目的“是为了进一步破坏汉藏民族关系,不但不让西藏与祖国恢复正常关系,而且要进一步使西藏与祖国关系恶化。”(《达赖喇嘛传》华文出版社p217)由此看来西方学者和中方学者对查尔斯·贝尔的评价是完全不同的。作为西藏影像的研究者,我们认为查尔斯·贝尔这一时期记录的西藏影像具有很高的历史价值及审美价值。站在不同的角度看待这些影像自然会得出不同的结果。

留在拉萨的日子是贝尔一年最好的时光。他回国后,1921年,他离开了印度行政部门并且自己撰写有关西藏的书籍。退休后,他出版了关于西藏历史文化的书-《西藏:过去及现在(1920)》,《西藏宗教》。 贝尔还继续与达赖喇嘛进行私人通信。

贝尔在1934年再次回到西藏,这一次与他的妻子,卡西(Cashie)一同前往。 不幸的是,他是为时已晚,不能与他的老朋友十三世达赖喇嘛再次相见,因为在1933年十三世达赖喇嘛过世了。 贝尔在未来几年继续他的旅行,他去了中亚,蒙古,满洲和西伯利亚访问。 很巧 的是,贝尔的最后的作品是关于十三世达赖喇嘛在1910年的见面《达赖喇嘛的肖像》是1945年3月8日贝尔在加拿大去世后出版。

查尔斯·贝尔爵士很可能是英国军官在西藏服务最有影响力的人物。他奠定了盎格鲁与西藏的关系。他在1920年去拉萨的行程为以后英国人去西藏铺平了道路。贝尔的实力在于他能够将自己融入西藏文化,让藏语成为了他自己的语言。用他自己的话说就是 “很大程度被藏化了”。这使得他赢得了许多西藏人的尊重。一个藏族官员说:“当欧洲人和我们在一起的时候,我们感觉他是欧洲人,我们是西藏人,但是贝尔总是和我们在一起,我感觉我们都是西藏人。”

Charles Bell (1870-1945)查尔斯·贝尔年表

1891 加入印度公务员

1900指派到大吉岭-开始学习藏文

1908 指派为锡金,不丹及西藏的政治长官

1910 在十三世达赖喇嘛从西藏被流放时与贝尔相见

1913 麦克马洪条约的咨询者

1918 贝尔离开印度公务员的职务,开始献身于西藏的研究

1919 继任锡金,不丹,西藏的政治长官

1920 去往拉萨行使外交任务--在那待了一年最好的时光

1921 离开印度公务员职务,开始集中精力写关于西藏的书

1922 得到骑士称号

 

 

饶登·雷布查

摄影师,查尔斯·贝尔的助手

19?? 出生于锡金的一个雷布查家庭

19?? 在锡金成为了查尔斯·贝尔的助手,并持续为他工作了18年

1920 – 1921 随同贝尔去往拉萨,并拍摄了大量照片

(我们现在能获得的关于饶登·雷布查的信息非常至少,因而我们也暂时无法为他做一篇传记)




黄建鹏画廊收藏了自1860年代到2010年代多位西藏摄影史中重要摄影家的原作,是中国收藏和研究西藏影像最为专业的机构之一。

 

Sir Charles Bell

 

Charles Alfred Bell was born in Calcutta, India, on 31 October 1870 - the son of Henry Bell of the Indian Civil Service (ICS). Educated at Winchester school and New College, Oxford, Charles also joined the ICS in 1891 and spent the next nine years in various posts in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, before being transferred to Darjeeling in 1900. It was there that he had his first contact with Tibetans and became fascinated with the people and their culture. Bell at once applied himself to learning the Tibetan language. This led to the publication, in 1905, of his first book, A Manual of Colloquial Tibetan , a two-part grammar-phrase book and dictionary. During the next few years Bell became increasingly involved in the political affairs of Tibet and the surrounding regions. In 1904-5 he was put in charge of administration of the Chumbi Valley, an area that had been temporarily ceded by Tibet to Britain under the terms of the Younghusband Treaty. Bell also served as the acting Political Officer for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet during the absence of John C. White, before succeeding him in the post in 1908.

The most significant event during Bell's time as Political Officer was meeting the Thirteenth Dalai Lama in 1910. His Holiness had been forced to flee Tibet under pressure from the Chinese and had sought refuge in Sikkim. As Political Officer for the region Bell, was responsible for the Dalai Lama during his exile. The two formed an intimate and lasting friendship, which was to prove critical to the British in their future negotiations and dealings with Tibet after the Dalai Lama's return to Lhasa in June 1912. As Bell himself stated, the assistance given to the Dalai Lama during his exile was "perhaps the chief reason why the British name stands high in Tibet".

Bell's diplomatic acumen was put to use during the treaty negotiations with the Tibetans in 1913-14, when he played an important role as advisor on Tibetan affairs to the British plenipotentiary, Sir Henry McMahon. A treaty was signed which set out new Anglo-Tibetan trade regulations. The fact that the Tibetans agreed to this was very much a reflection of the confidence that the 13th Dalai Lama and his representative, Prime Minister (Lonchen) Shatra, had in Bell. The British government awarded Bell a C.M.G. (knighthood) for his part in the process.

Bell continued as Political Officer for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet until 1918. During this time he continued his communications with the 13 th Dalai Lama and advised him on the modernization policies he was developing for Tibet. Bell was widely acknowledged in British circles as the primary authority on Tibetan matters at this time.

After 1918 Bell took leave from the Civil Service and devoted himself to the study of Tibet, spending the next two years in Darjeeling. Although for many years he had an open invitation from the 13 th Dalai Lama to visit Lhasa, the British Government did not allow him to do so. However, in 1919 the situation changed when the Political Officer, Captain W.L. Campbell unexpectedly resigned. Bell took up the position once again, on the understanding that there was a strong possibility that he would be allowed to visit Lhasa.

In 1920 Bell was finally given Government permission to visit the Tibetan capital as part of a diplomatic mission, arriving in Lhasa on 17 November. Bell's role was to advise the Tibetans on foreign policy. "The Dalai Lama showed his more than friendly intentions by receiving Sir Bell, at the very first interview, informally, sitting with him at a small table in his private apartment, with no witness present. This was regarded by the people of Lhasa as a special honour, as it was the custom for His Holiness to receive even the highest Tibetan officials while seated on his dais" .

Bell remained in Lhasa for the best part of a year. After his return, in 1921, he left the ICS and applied himself to writing about Tibet. In his retirement, Bell published several books on Tibetan culture and history - Tibet: Past and Present (1920), followed by The People of Tibet (1928), and The Religion of Tibet(1931). Bell also continued his personal correspondence with the Dalai Lama.

In 1934 Bell returned to Tibet once again and this time with his wife, Cashie. Unfortunately he was too late to meet his old friend again, for the 13 th Dalai Lama had passed away in December 1933. Bell continued his travels in Central Asia during the next few years visiting Mongolia, Manchuria and Siberia. Fittingly, Bell's final work was a result of the strong bond that he had formed with the 13 th Dalai Lama since their first meeting in 1910. The book, Portrait of the Dalai Lama , was completed only a few days before his death in Canada (where he had recently migrated) on 8 March 1945.

Sir Charles Bell was probably the most influential British officer to serve in Tibet. He set the groundwork for Anglo-Tibetan relations, and his visit to Lhasa in1920 paved the way for subsequent British officials to travel to Tibet. Bell's strength lay in the way he was able to immerse himself in Tibetan culture and language, becoming, in his own words, "in a large measure Tibetanised". This earned him the respect and acceptance of the many Tibetans. As one Tibetan official "When a European is with us Tibetans I feel that he is a European and we are Tibetans; but when Lonchen Bell is with us, I feel that we are all Tibetans together".

Chronology of Charles Bell

1891 Joins the Indian Civil Service

1900 Posted to Darjeeling - starts to learn Tibetan

1908 Appointed Political Officer for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet

1910 Meets the 13th Dalai Lama during his exile from Tibet

1913 Advisor on the McMahon Treaty

1918 Bell leaves the Civil Service to devote himself to the study of Tibet

1919 Resumes as Political Officer for Sikkim, Bhutan and Tibet on resignation of his successor

1920 Leads diplomatic mission to Lhasa - stays for best part of a year

1921 Leaves the Civil Service to concentrate on writing about Tibet

1922 Awarded a Knighthood

 

 

Rabden Lepcha 

 

Photographer and assistant to Charles Bell

19?? Born in Sikkim into a Lepcha family

19?? Became assistant to Charles Bell in Sikkim and continued to work for him for 18 years

1920 - 1921 Accompanied Bell to Lhasa and took many photographs

(Very little information is currently available about Rabden so we have yet to enter a biography for him.)




Huang Jianpeng Gallery collected lots of original works of the important photographers in Tibet photography history. It is one of the most professional institutions that collect and study Tibet images. 

 


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