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名片照(法语中称carte de visite,简称CdV 或者CDV,也可以拼写为carte-de-visite,有时也会被错误地写为carte de ville)是由法国摄影师迪斯德里(André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri)于1854年在法国巴黎发明并获得专利的,并首先被路易斯·多德罗(Louis Dodero)所使用。它通常使用蛋白印相,这是一种薄薄的纸质照片,被裱贴在稍厚一些的纸卡片上。名片照的尺寸是 54.0 毫米(2.125 英寸) × 89 毫米 (3.5 英寸),裱贴的纸卡片尺寸是64 毫米(2.5 英寸) × 100 毫米(4 英寸)1854年,迪斯德里还发明了一种在同一张底片上拍摄8个独立影像的方法以降低生产成本,并且也申请了专利。直到1859年,迪斯德里用这种形式公布了统治者拿破仑三世的照片,名片照才慢慢地被广泛传播开来。这个事件使得名片照片一夜成名,这个新发明被称为"cardomania"广为流行,并最终传播到世界的各个角落。

每张照片都是名片大小,这种名片照也变得极为流行,人们在走亲访友时都会互相交换。这些照片的大受欢迎,也促生了名人相片的出版和收集。名片照传遍了整个欧洲,也迅速地传到了美国。照片的相册和这些照片的展示成为了维多利亚时代人们的起居室中常见的摆设。

19世纪70年代初,名片照被“内阁卡”(cabinet cards)取代,这些照片也通常使用蛋白印制,但是尺寸更大一些,裱贴在尺寸为110 毫米 (4.5 英寸) × 170 毫米 (6.5 英寸)的纸板上。内阁卡一直流行到20世纪早期,这个时期柯达推出的布朗尼相机和家庭快照成为了普遍的现象。

The carte de visite (abbreviated CdV or CDV, and also spelled carte-de-visite or erroneously referred to as carte de ville) was a type of small photograph which was patented in Paris, France by photographer André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri in 1854, although first used by Louis Dodero.[1][2] It was usually made of an albumen print, which was a thin paper photograph mounted on a thicker paper card. The size of a carte de visite is 54.0 mm (2.125 in) × 89 mm (3.5 in) mounted on a card sized 64 mm (2.5 in) × 100 mm (4 in). In 1854, Disdéri had also patented a method of taking eight separate negatives on a single plate, which reduced production costs. The Carte de Visite was slow to gain widespead use until 1859, when Disdéri published Emperor Napoleon III's photos in this format.[3] This made the format an overnight success, and the new invention was so popular it was known as "cardomania"[4] and eventually spread throughout the world.

Each photograph was the size of a visiting card, and such photograph cards became enormously popular and were traded among friends and visitors. The immense popularity of these card photographs led to the publication and collection of photographs of prominent persons. "Cardomania" spread throughout Europe and then quickly to America. Albums for the collection and display of cards became a common fixture in Victorian parlors.

By the early 1870s, cartes de visite were supplanted by "cabinet cards," which were also usually albumen prints, but larger, mounted on cardboard backs measuring 110 mm (4.5 in) by 170 mm (6.5 in). Cabinet cards remained popular into the early 20th century, when Kodak introduced the Brownie camera and home snapshot photography became a mass phenomenon.


橱柜照(内阁卡)是一种在1870年运用的摄影肖像照片风格。它包括一张薄的照片,大小在6½英寸乘以4¼英寸。

CDV影像很快被橱柜照(内阁卡)取代。在1860年早期,这两种照片都十分流行。它们两种都是蛋白照片。其中这两种照片最大的不同在于橱柜照(内阁卡)比CDV大,并且在橱柜照(内阁卡)背面有很多签名及标志来宣传拍摄此卡的摄影师。但是,随后,这种制作蛋白影像的过程被替代。除了这一点不同,橱柜照(内阁卡)一开始被用作拍摄风景,之后才被用来拍摄肖像。

19世纪90年代的一些橱柜照(内阁卡)图像出现在蛋白显像过程中显着的独特的棕褐色色调的黑白照片。这些照片色调中立,很有可能是用磨砂火棉胶,明胶或明胶溴化纸制作的。

有些那个时期的影像会有些绿色影子。这种明胶相纸是从1870年前引入的,在1880年到1890年,明胶溴化纸开始被人们接受。亚光火棉胶也在这个时期被运用。一种纯正的黑白橱柜照(内阁卡)大约就是在1890年及1900年以后被复制。最后一张橱柜照(内阁卡)是在1924年后产出。

The Cabinet card was the style of photograph which was universally adopted for photographic portraiture in 1870. It consisted of a thin photograph that was generally mounted on cards measuring 4¼ by 6½ inches.

The Carte de visite process was quickly replaced by the larger Cabinet cards. In the early 1860s, both types of photographs were essentially the same in process and design. Both were most often albumen prints; the primary difference being the cabinet card was larger and usually included extensive logos and information on the reverse side of the card to advertise the photographer’s services. However, later into its popularity, other types of papers began to replace the albumen process. Despite the similarity, the cabinet card format was initially used for landscape views before it was adopted for portraiture.

Some cabinet card images from 1890s have the appearance of a black and white photograph in contrast to the distinctive sepia toning notable in the albumen print process. These photographs have a neutral image tone and were most likely produced on a matte collodion, gelatin or gelatin bromide paper.

Sometimes images from this period can be identified by a greenish cast. Gelatin papers were introduced in the 1870s and started gaining acceptance in the 1880s and 1890s as the gelatin bromide papers became popular. Matte collodion was used in the same period. A true black and white image on a cabinet card is likely to have been produced in the 1890s or after 1900. The last cabinet cards were produced in the twenties, even as late as 1924.

 
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